In addition to using this study guide, students should look over previous quizzes and tests, previous study guides, all class powerpoint notes, and student and teacher blog posts that directly dealt with a topic we covered in class.

40 Multiple-choice questions
10 Short-answer questions

This test is 20% of your final grade!!!


Students, your assignment is to collaborate on this wiki page to create your study guide. Include pictures and links to website animations or videos where appropriate. DO NOT POST A PICTURE OR INFORMATION FROM ANOTHER WEBSITE WITHOUT INCLUDING THE SOURCE! YOU WILL BE PENALIZED FOR PLAGIARISM.

1. What is a hypothesis?
- a suggested testable answer to a well desgined scientific question.In order to make a hypothesis you need to make an educated guess using knowledge that you already have. Do not fall in love with a hypothesis, it can always be proven wrong.

2. What is the independent variable and the dependent variable in an experiment?
Independent and dependent variables are mathematical tools used in an experiment that allow you to have control over your experiment in a quantitative way. With them you will be able to measure your results and have accurate conclusions. The independent variable is the part in the experiment in which you change. The dependent variable changes when the independent variable changes and depends on the outcome of the independent variable. There can be more than one dependent variable, but there can only be one independent variable.


3. Innate vs. Learned Behavior
Innate Behavior is a behavior performed correctly and in the same way by all individuals of a species without previous experiment(eating, sleeping, drinking etc). All animals of the species can preform the behavior sucessfully in the same way. A learned Behavior is one that an animal learns through trial and error & experiance(attacking and killing prey). You can tell what a learned behavior is when some animals in a species preform it better than others.
4. Imprinting
Imprinting is learning that is limited to a specific time period in an animal's life, and is usually irreversible.
Ex. A bird can not learn to sing if they do not learn in the begginning of their life.

5. Habituation
Type of learning in which an animal stops responding to a repeated stimulus that conveys little or no important information, saves energy. An example of this is crows & a scare crow/ a dog and a electric fence.external image moz-screenshot.jpg
external image moz-screenshot-1.jpg6. Classical and Operant Conditioning
Classical conditioning is something that is subconsciously learned. Operant conditioning when an animal learns something through the "trial and error" method.
pavlovdog.jpghttp://www.geocities.com/skews_me_too/img/pavlovdog.jpg
7. Ultimate causes of the following animal behaviors: Habituation, Dominance Hierarchies, Courtship Rituals, and Territorial Behavior
The ultimate cause of habituation is to save energy by not repeating to a repeated stimulus. The ultimate cause of dominance hierarchies is for animals to save their energy. The ultimate cause of courtship rituals is to show their mate that they are of the opposite gender, the same species, that they are ready to mate, and that they are healthy. The ultimate cause of territorial behavior is to get mates and food. The following page has examples of different types of territorial behaviors and videos of different animals performing these behaviors: http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/birdterritories.html.

8. List the biological levels of organization from largest to smallest.
Biosphere, ecosystem, community, population, species, individual, organ systems, organs, tisues, cells, molecules, atoms
http://staff.jccc.net/PDECELL/lifeis/biorgnew.html

cellimage
cellimage
LEVEL
1 - Cells
*
  • Are the basic unit of structure and function in living things.
  • May serve a specific function within the organism
  • Examples- blood cells, nerve cells, bone cells, etc.

tissueimage
tissueimage
LEVEL
2 - Tissues
* Made up of cells that are similar in structure and function and which work together to perform a specific activity
    • Examples - blood, nervous, bone, etc. Humans have 4 basic tissues: connective, epithelial, muscle, and nerve.


heartimage
heartimage
LEVEL
3 - Organs
* Made up of tissues that work together to perform a specific activity
  • Examples - heart, brain, skin, etc.

skeletonimage
skeletonimage
LEVEL4 - Organ Systems
* Groups of two or more tissues that work together to perform a specific function for the organism.
    • Examples - circulatory system, nervous system, skeletal system, etc.
    • The Human body has 11 organ systems - circulatory, digestive, endocrine, excretory (urinary), immune(lymphatic), integumentary, muscular, nervous, reproductive, respiratory, and skeletal.

organismsimage
organismsimage
LEVEL
5 - Organisms
* Entire living things that can carry out all basic life processes. Meaning they can take in materials, release energy from food, release wastes, grow, respond to the environment, and reproduce.
    • Usually made up of organ systems, but an organism may be made up of only one cell such as bacteria or protist.
  • Examples - bacteria, amoeba, mushroom, sunflower, human


9. Abiotic vs. Biotic factors in the environment
Abotic is nonliving things. Biotic is living things. Examples of abiotic factors are dirt, water, rocks, and houses. Examples of biotic factors are mammals and
humans.

10. levels of the food chain
The levels of the food chain are the producers, then then primary consumers, then the secondary consumer, then the tertiary consumers.
external image FoodChain.gifhttp://pack152.net/AcademicsAndSports/WildlifeConservation/FoodChain.gif

11. Autotrophs vs. Heterotrophs
Autotrophs are the producers. Autotrophs are the prducers in an ecosyste.They fix their own energy from inorganic substances. Whereas Heterotrophs depend upon the energy fixed by other organisms. They are the consumers and decomposers. My source was my notes.

12. Transfer of energy through the food chain
When energy is transferred from one living thing to another, 90% of the energy is lost. The energy gets introduced at the primary producer level. It is then transferred to the primary consumer level via being eaten. The primary consumers have 10% of the energy the primary producers had. They are then eaten by the secondary consumers, who will gain 10% of the energy the primary consumers had. After, the tertiary consumers will eat the secondary consumers, and gain 10% of the energy they had. The tertiary consumers will have 1/1000 of the energy the primary producers had. The Quaternary consumers, which are not present in every ecosystem, will eat the tertiary consumers, and will gain 10% of the energy that the tertiary consumer had. The quaternary consumers will only have 1/10000 of the energy the primary producers started with. Because only 10% of the energy is being transfered, the amount of animals decrease the higher you go on the energy triangle.

external image 069.jpgexternal image moz-screenshot.jpgexternal image moz-screenshot-1.jpgexternal image moz-screenshot-2.jpg9-26-06,_Ecology_and_Energy5.png

Link : http://heybryan.org/school/Biology/notes/9-26-06,%20Ecology%20and%20Energy5.png

13. Community Interactions (mutualism, parasitism, commensalism)
Mutualism is when two SPECIES work together in a way that benefits them both. Parasitsm is when the parasite derives nourishment from a host, which is harmed in the process.(+,-) interaction. Commenalism is a (+,neutral) interaction. An example is the barnacles on whales.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8BEKrc-aXF8&feature=related

This is an example of mutualism. The bird is getting a meal from the bugs and dead skin on the hippo's back, and the hippo is getting his back and wounds cleaned.
external image moz-screenshot-3.jpgSee Photo
Hippo and Bird by lbraverm
Hippo and Bird by lbraverm




14. Thomas Malthus prediction
Thomas Malthus wrote a book called On Population that predicted the population would grow exponentially and then run out of food, causing famine and population decrease and possible extinction.


external image Thomas_Malthus.jpg

http://www.economist.com/blogs/freeexchange/Thomas_Malthus.jpg

external image mathusianpopulation.gif


15. Greenhouse effect
The greenhouse effect is greenhouse gases in the atmosphere trapping heat that would usually reflect back into space, so all the heat from the sun stays on the earth. Some examples of greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide and nitrogen. http://www.global-greenhouse-warming.com/images/GreenhouseEffectDiagram.jpg
gheffect.gif
http://ircamera.as.arizona.edu/NatSci102/images/gheffect.gifhttp://www.effectofglobalwarming.com/images/What-is-global-warming-img.jpg
16. Carbon dioxide sources and sinks.
The activities that lead to emissions are called the sources and the things that remove emissions are called sinks. The biggest source of emissions is the combustion of fossil fuels like coal, oil and gas used in factories or in cars. Trees and plants are the most important sinks. Emissions are also being captured by power plants and factories then pumped deep in the ground. Also organisms that take in carbon dioxide are sinks and organisms that breath out carbon dioxide are sources>


17. Draw a water molecule and label bonds and charges found within the molecule.



Remember that the molecule has partial charges. The bonds are Polar Covalent Bonds.
http://www.geo.umn.edu/courses/1006/Fall00_night/Water%20molecule.JPG. Here's a picture. Link to it.

18. Describe the properties of water
-cohesion- water molecules attract to each other.
-adhesion- water molecules attract to different molecules.
~temperature moderation- water heats up slower and cools down slower than solids because it is slower to absorb and releases thermal energy.
~Low density of ice- hydrogen bonds make four bonds when frozen spreading the molecules out. Normally the hydrogen bonds are bonding/disbonding so quickly they get more tightly packed.
~Water's ability to disolve other substances
(Biology- Campbell, Williamson, Heyden 81)

19. pH (what makes something acidic? what makes something basic?)
The pH scale is a scale that determines if a solution is acidic or basic. If a solution is a 7 that is a neutral, 1-6 acidic, 8-14 basic. pH also determines how many H+ (hydrogen ions) and how man OH(hydroxide ions) are in a substance. OH making it basic and H+ making it acidic.
external image pH-scale.gif&usg=AFQjCNG_ClliZjIsMClBgINgbgLLy2LIwAhttp://www.alkalife.net.au/images/pH-scale.gif

20. Organic vs. Inorganic Molecules
Organic Molecules are carbon based. Inorganic are not carbon based.
Carbon based meaning the structural skeleton of the molecules is made of carbon; being it has 4 valance electrons it is a very useful element.

21. Creation of polymers from monomers by dehydration synthesis.
When monomers are linked to polymers a water molecule is released in the process. This process is called dehydration synthesis.
22. The atoms found in 96% of your body.
The atoms that make up 96% of your body are CHON. C for Carbon. H for Hydrogen. O for Oxygen. N for Nitrogen.

23. Number of bonds Carbon, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Hydrogen can covalently form with other molecules.
Carbon can form 4 bonds, Nitrogen 3 bonds, Oxygen 2 bonds, and Hydrogen 1 bond.

24. The Organic Compounds Chart you created in class (carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins); note that nucleic acids will NOT be on this exam
Carbohydrate
: a large group of energy producing compounds, including sugars and starches, that contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen

Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Contains
Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen
A chain of carbon atoms to which hydrogen and oxygen atoms are attached.
nonpolar, insoluble
1. Fats 2.Phosolipids
3. Steroids
Carbon/ Hydrogen/Oxygen/Nitrogen
CHON-96% of your body
Monomer
Monosaccharide-forms rings

Ex: Glucose (C6H12O6) sugar molecule
Varies
Amino acid(20 different types that make up
all things)
Dimer
disaccharide
Two surgar molecules
Ex. sucrose
Varies
Dipeptide
Polymer
polysaccharide
Three or more monosaccharides joined together
Ex. Starch, glyogen, cellulose, chitin
Starch - Glucose Polymer-energy storage in plants.
Glycogen- Glucose Polymer- Energy storage in animals.
Cellulos- Glucose Polymer- Structure molecule found in plant cell walls.
Chitin- Glucose Polymer- Structure molecule in fungus, cell walls and animal
exoskeletons.
fats, phospholipids, steroids
Polypeptide: Cells create proteins by linking amino
acids together in a chain.

25. Ability to recognize the organic compounds by picture.
organic_compouds.gif


Link to a page where there are multiple examples of organic compounds. http://homepage.smc.edu/kline_peggy/Organic/images/Organic_Compounds_ID.gif
26. Identify and describe the properties of Substance X
In our experiment, 'Substance X' was really Pectinase. “Pectinase is a general term for enzymes that break down pectin, a polysaccharide substrate that is found in the cell walls of plants” - http://scriptovia.com/document-landing.aspx?DocID=155. In our experiment, it increased the productivity of apple juice from applesauce. Here's a picture of Aimee's graph showing the amount of productivity between apple juice with and without Pectinase. - http://missbakersbiologyclass.com/blog/2008/10/29/what-is-substance-x/#comments.
27. What is insight?
Insight is when an animal is able to take a situation where it has no prior knowledge about it and solve the problem. For example, watch this video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ny661wLDSn8 . It is shocking how smart these crows are and how they learn to do this.
28. What are immediate and ultimate causes?
Immediate causes are things that cause an animal to do a behavior. Such as how is the behavior initiated? Who performs the behavior and When it is performed? Ultimate cause is basically why the animal does the behavior. How does the behavior help the animal survive and reproduce?