#13 needs a lot of review!


1. How can you distinguish pseudoscience from science?

pseudo science is usually not very well tested and is trying to sell something if it is an ad. if it were really science it would give all the information. also pseudo science never changes if there is new evidence it just rejects the evidence and stays in its own little bubble.

Pseudoscience is not backed up by very much evidence and can not be tested. It also is usually unclear and very generalized. Also, pseudoscientists often say that even though it can't be tested it is still science.

Pseudoscientists also try to make it a win win situation for themselves, saying that there is no way to test my claim.

Pseudoscience is also usually made by a source that is not really reliable. You have to ask WHO, WHAT, WHEN, WHERE, AND WHY.

Psedoscience adds also try to use celebraties to premote the product.

Pseudoscientists say, "I don't need to prove my findings, you just need to disprove them...".

Pseudoscience normally doesn't make any progressions over time.

Pseudoscientists sometimes say that a doctor agrees with the product but the doctor is sometimes not even in the field that the product is in they also do not have a lot of scientists testing it, only a few.

Pseudoscientists often claim that they have scientists in other fields that support their claim. They look at their claim and think "here is the conclusion, can we find evidence to support it?"

Pseudo scientists will often not give you much information about the product and instead offer something to buy that will tell you about the product.

Pseudoscience is anything that has knowledge or belief and looks as if it is scientific, but it does not agree with the scientific method.

Pseudoscientists often use fancy words to make their claim sound more scientific.

2. What are the levels of biological organization?

(largest to smallest)
Biosphere, Ecosystem, Community, Population, Species, Organism,
Organ System, Organ, Tissue, Cell, Organelle, Molecule, Atom

Examples and pictures of the levels of biological organization from largest to smallest:
http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/scimeth/c7.1.3.levels.jpg
http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/scimeth/c7.1.3b.levels.jpg
Here is a link that shows the levels of biological organization and briefly explains them.
http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/scimeth/c2x1levels.jpg
http://www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil/airchronicles/apj/apj94/spe94/kent3.jpg


3. What happens to the function of something when you change its structure? Provide many examples.
When you change the structure it determines the function. Let’s look at steroids for example. The main structure of a steroid is four interconnected carbon rings; three hexose, one pentose.

steroids.png

Whenever you add even one atom on the end of the main carbon rings of the main steroid structure, its function and even name will be different.

Another example would be when Miss Baker showed us the kids that had
small arms after their mother took that medicine when the kids were not born yet.

Structure determines function. Polypeptides would be a good example. Polypeptides curl up and fold into a certain shape and this decides what it does whether it is an enzyme or is used for repairing the body or providing a structure or support.

A well known phrase in science is “structure determines function”. In other words, the structure of a molecule determines the function and abilities of the molecule. A great example of the phrase “structure determines function” can be seen with amino acids. Amino acids all have the same basic structure. Follow the hyperlink for a brief explanation on amino acids, and a diagram. Can’t get the picture itself to come up. Just scroll down until you get it; you’ll have to look a bit. It’s a little more than halfway down the page! The side group, or “r”, is a variable, and can constantly change. http://www.sp.uconn.edu/~terry/images/mols/aastructure.gif As a matter of fact, this side group can change up to twenty times. Every time you add a different atom in place of the side group “r”, you create a new amino acid in itself. The other part stays the same, but the name and function of the amino acid changes all together. The structure of the whole monomer or molecule determines its function, even when it’s just one atom.

Every molecule has a certain structure that enables the molecule to perform its function. If you change even just one thing about the structure then you will also change the function of the molecule, and ultimately you create a complete new molecule then you had in the first place. Even just a small change in where a certain atom is located in a molecule, will change the function of the molecule entirely. [[Test Study Guide|]]


4. What is the difference between organic and inorganic compounds?

An organic compound is carbon based when an inorganic compound is not.

Organic compounds contain carbon, but inorganic compounds do not.

The difference is that organic compounds consist of carbon, where as inorganic compound does not. Most organic compounds are living things where as inorganic compounds are not living, dead. ex. butterfly_watching.jpg<-- Organic Compound water_drop.jpg <---- Inorganic Compound

spaceball.gif

5. What are functional groups?

Functional groups are groups of atoms within a molecule that interact in predictable ways with other molecules.

Functional groups are groups of atoms that usually participate in chemical reactions.

Functional groups of organic compounds are: hydroxyl group, carbonyl group, carboxyl group, amino group and the phosphate group.

Functional groups are atoms or small groups of atoms [two to four] that exhibit a characteristic reactivity when treated with certain reagents. A functional group will almost always reveal its characteristic chemical behavior when it is present in a compound and because of this the discussion of organic reactions is often organized according to functional groups.
Examples: http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicreview/bp/2organic/function.html

This website talks about functional groups and has some interactive parts to it. Great examples also(and if you keep going in the website it covers everything we have learned in these chapters) http://biology.clc.uc.edu/courses/bio104/carbon.htm
Hre is a great link

6. Organic Compounds: Explain and list the most important biological examples for each category.


a) Carbohydrates:
-Glucose is an example of a monosaccharide. It is the main source of energy for life. Picture: http://science9.files.wordpress.com/2007/04/diabetes-glucose.gif

An example of a disaccharide would be sucrose which is like a table sugar. It is glucose + fructose.

sugar.jpg
This is table sugar, a.k.a. sucrose.

You can read about more examples you can read under the carbohydrates section on this website: http://www.medicalcomputing.net/biological_chem_computer_carb.html

A carbohydrate is an organic compound made up of sugar.
Most carbohydrate backbones are ring shaped.
Also most carbohydrates are hydrophilic or water friendly.

Monosaccharide- simple sugars that contain one unit of sugar
Disaccharide- two monosaccharides or two units of sugar (double-sugars are a short term)
Polysaccharide- a long chain of simple sugar monomers

starch
-made of glucose monomers
- found in plant cells (potatoes are a plant with starch) of only glucose monomers
- They are sugar stockpiles
- Not in animal cells
- becomes energy

glycogen
-made of glucose monomers
-highly branched compared to starch
-in humans it is in the granules in liver and the muscle cells
-becomes energy

cellulose
-made up of glucose monomers
-building material for plants
-protect cells and stiffens the plant
-cannot be digested by people (it passes through the human digestive track without giving nutrients)

chitin
-made of glucose monomers
-tough, undigestible polymer found in some animal exoskeletons and fungal cell walls

b) Proteins:
-A protein is a polymer made up of monomers called amino acids. There are 20 different amino acids. There are 160,000 possible proteins, and this is an example of the unity and diversity of life. They all have a similar structure, but are different in the side (R) group. The shape of the protein determines its function. One example of a protein is an enzyme, which help to speed up reactions.
This link will clear up any misunderstandings about proteins. It has a lot of facts.

AminoAcidLG.gif












This picture above is of an amino acid.

-Proteins are composed of amino acids and have a defined three-dimensional structure. This form dictates the function. Proteins are responsible for all the reactions and activities of the cell. The structure of the individual proteins is encoded in DNA in the cell nucleus. This video should help you understand amino acids and their functions better.

c) Lipids:
A lipid consists of a glycerol molecule linked to three fatty acid chains, and is hydrophobic. A very important lipid is a fat. It consists of three fatty acid chains. There are saturated and unsaturated fats. Saturated fats are fats that have the most amount of hydrogen within its fatty acid chains that it can. Some fats have a double bond of carbon within in one or more of the chains; this means it is unsaturated because it could have more hydrogen.

Another example of lipids are phospholipids. In these, one fatty acid chain is replaced by a phosphate group. It has a hydrophobic end and a hydrophilic end. When they are put in water they arrange themselves to look like this: (ignore the writing on the side) These make up cell membranes of all living things.

A third kind is a steroid. All steroids have a core set of four rings. Some act as biological messengers, although they have many different purposes that not all share. A well-known steroid is cholesterol. It is found in cell membranes and is the starting point from which the body produces other steroids.

Here is a great link with lots of pictures and information on lipids, check it out!!!
Here is a link.

7. What happens to the food you eat after it enters your mouth? Outline the entire digestive process.

The three steps of the digestive system are first the food is ingested which then your teeth break down the food so it is able to go down your esophagus. The second step is digestion, which then the stomach with enzymes (which are special proteins that speed up chemical reactions.) Then the last and final step of the digestive system is eliminating, which is when all the build up waste that your body did not use is exerted out of your body. Here is a really good link to show you the process of digestion! THIS IS FANTASTIC!

This link has a diagram of how the digestive system works.

8. How is the energy in food measured?

Food energy is measured in calories. A calorie is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by one degree Celsius. The calories you see on a food label are actually measured in kilocalories. A kilocalorie is 1,000 calories.
You can actually measure the energy content in food by burning it. You burn the particular food under an insulated container of water. The burning of the food converts the stored chemical energy (calories in the food) into thermal energy. By measuring the increase in water temperature and using the definition of a calorie, you can calculate the number of calories in the peanut.

Energy is measured by calories which are the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water 1 degree. Watch this video for more information.

Energy is measured by burning a sample of the food, and dividing the time it burned by the mass of the food.

9. Why are amino acids a wonderful example of the unity and diversity that can be found in life?

There are 20 different types of amino acids that are essential to human life and each have different functions and uses in your body.

Each amino acid consists of the same central carbon atom bonded to four partners. Three of the central carbon's partners are the same in all amino acids. The difference is the "side group" that attaches to the fourth bond of the central carbon. It is also called the "R-group" which is responsible for the particular chemical properties of each amino acid.
aminoacid.jpg
Now the reason why amino acids are great examples of unity and diversity is because amino acids create everything. Now everybody and everything needs and has the 20 essential amino acids creating unity among all living things. The reason why it makes all life forms diverse is the way the amino acids are arranged to make up something. For example a lizard might contain amino acid number 123456 in that exact order but on the other hand bacteria might contain 312456 in that order. Now they use the same amino acids but are arranged differently and as you can see they are both very different.

http://www.johnkyrk.com/aminoacid.html

10. What are the parts of the cell theory?

All cells come from pre-existing cells.
Cells are the basic unit of structure and function.
Cells contain hereditary information which is passed to "daughter" cells during cell division.
All living things are made up of one or more cells.
All cells are basically the same in chemical composition.

Click HERE for a short tutorial on this cell theory.
cell.gif



11. Why is the cell theory called a theory?

Just like any scientific theory, the cell theory is called a theory because it is an broad explanation of nature, it has an enormous amount of evidence supporting it, and it is accepted by the scientific community.


12. How was the cell theory developed? Give a historical background.
Schwann created the term "cell theory" and declared that plants consisted of cells. This declaration was made after that of Matthias Schlieden's (1804 - 1881) that animals are composed of cells. Although none of this would have been possible without the man who discovered the cell, Robert Hooke (1635 – 1703), an English naturalist, he discovered the cell (by looking under a microscope at slices of cork), and named it after the Latin word cella which means "storeroom" or "small container". Later, in 1665, he wrote a book to document his findings called Micrographia.

13. Why is the cell theory called a theory and not a law?

The only reason that the cell theory is a theory and not a law, is because a theory is qualitative, and not quantitative. Neither a law nor a theory are greater than each other, because they are both equally strong. While a law uses measurements, a theory uses other observations. Both have a ton of evidence supporting them.

This is going to be a very important question on the exam. Go here and read the entire post and visit all links:

http://missbakersbiologyclass.com/blog/2007/09/03/is-it-a-theory-or-a-law/

14. What is diffusion?

Diffusion is the net movement of the particles of a substance from where they are more concentrated(an area of higher concentration) to where they are less concentrated.

Diffusion is the process in which there is movement of a substance from an area of high concentration of that substance to an area of lower concentration. Here is clip to help you. Diffusion

http://www.indiana.edu/~phys215/lecture/lecnotes/lecgraphics/diffusion.gif
This is a clip about how diffusion works and what happpens during it.

http://www.wisc-online.com/objects/index_tj.asp?objID=AP1903
At the link above is an interactive activity.

diffusion.gif

15. Give two examples of diffusion in the body.

Two examples of diffusion-
1. Oxygen being diffused from your lungs into your blood arteries. http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/artificial-blood-8.jpg

2. The exchanging of gases at the alveoli. When you breathe in the oxygen goes from the air to your blood and the carbon dioxide goes from your blood to the air.
Study_Guide_Photo.gif
http://www.indiana.edu/~phys215/lecture/lecnotes/lecgraphics/diffusion2.gif

example_3.jpg
This is a picture of cell diffusion, the cells are moving from an area of high concentration to low concentration.