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14 M.C.
6 Completion
10 Matching (biomes and aquatic ecosystems)
9 Short-answer (one sentence or less)
3 Long-answer (2-3 sentences)

Important concepts

What is the independent and dependent variable in an experiment?
The independent variable is what you change in an experiment. A dependent variable is what is being measured in an experiment.

What is the difference between ecology and environmentalism?
Ecology (amoral) is the scientific study of the interactions between organisms in their environment, the goal of ecology is to understand the biological principles of how natural systems operate. Environmentalism (moral) is a broad philosophy and social movement centered on a concern for the conservation and improvement of the environment. The difference is that ecology is science-based, and environmentalism is value-based.

What ultimately determines ecosystem patterns?
Climate which is determined by the sun.

adoptweb.gifphoto source

What are the aquatic and terrestrial (biomes) ecosystems?
Aquatic: Ponds, lakes, streams, and rivers are freshwater. Estuaries are where the stream or river meets the ocean. The coral reef has extreme diversity. The deep sea has no light, and chemosynthetic bacteria are producers.
Terrestrial: The tropical rain forest has enormous productivity and diversity. The savanna has grasslands and scattererd trees. The desert has extreme temperature variation. The chaparral is coastal, has dense evergreen shrubs, and is dry in the summer. Temperate grassland has deep, nutrient-rich soil. Temperate broadleaf forests have a wide variety, and they are where we live. The coniferous forest has cone-bearing evergreen trees. The tundra is cold, and covered in permafrost. High mountains and polar ice are self-explanatory.

What determines what organisms live in what ecosystems?
Certain organisms need certain things. Most organisms need to live in a good climate so they can survive and reproduce, they also need food, water, and a certain terrain. Example: Lions live in the Savanna so they need to be in a warm climate and have food, water, and shelter.

What sampling techniques do biologists use and when are each appropriate?
Biologist will use the mark-recapture method where they mark each individual they capture and then recapture them to see how many marked individuals they get back, mostly used to determine a large animal population size. Indirect counting is when they count each individual, mostly used in a small population. Quadrat is taking a section of an abundance of species within that area, mostly used for a plant population.

Explain how the two opposing forces determine population size.
1. Biotic potential/ exponential growth max rate population could increase assuming ideal conditioning.
2. Environmental resistance/Limiting Factors a condition that can restrict a population growth. example: disease and availability of food.

Describe the biotic and abiotic factors which limit population size.
Abiotic Factors-
Availability of Water, Range of Temperatures, Altitude, weather, space.

Biotic Factors-
Source of Food, Competition from other Species
Competition from same Species for Resources or mates
Parasites and infectious Diseases

What happens if a population surpasses carrying capacity?

external image carrying%20capacity.gif
As a growing population approaches carrying capacity, the birth rate will decrease (go down) or the death rate will increase (go up) [or both]
until they are about equal, or the species will go extinct, because of lack of resources.

Use the hare-lynx model to explain how population growth is sometimes cyclical. Remember! You should be able to draw and explain this!

photo source

The predator/prey interactions cause the populations to rise and fall in sync with each other, since both animals' population sizes depend on factors from the other species so much.

Competitive exclusion principle: why does it explain biodiversity?
Species cannot be too similar to each other or they will compete for the same resources and one will eventually go extinct.

What are the major interactions (predation, commensalism, etc.) between organisms in a community?
Predation(+/-) is where one organism eats another. Parasitism(+/-) is where the parasite obtains food at the expense of the host. Mutualism (+/-) is where both organisms benefit from the relationship. Commensalism(+/o) is where one organism benefits while the other is neither harmed nor helped.

How does the greenhouse effect operate and why is it necessary for life?
Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere trap heat that would otherwise be reflected back into space. Without the greenhouse effect, heat would not be able to stay.

What happens as greenhouse gases increase in the atmosphere?
As our greenhouse gases increase less Infra- red energy is being let out. this means that as less rays are being let out the temperature will greatly increase.


How have humans impacted the carbon cycle?
Humans impact by burning coal, oil, and natural gas. As humans are burning these materials, carbon dioxide gets realized into the air

Using the Antarctic case study as your example, explain the interdependency of life.
This study explained how every living organism is dependent upon something else in it's eco-system. There are'nt any organisms who
rely on absolutely nothing to live.

Why is the problem with the hole in the ozone unrelated to global warming?
The ozone layer slows down global warming. As the UV rays come into the ozone layer it allows heat to escape into the atmosphere. Keep in mind that there are other greenhouse gases in the "hole" such as carbon dioxide and methane. So, heat is still getting trapped in this area. It isn't a pure hole.
The Ozone hole over Antarcica

What is the current population of the United States? The World?
There are currently 305 million people in the U.S. and 6.7 billion in the world.

What kind of growth pattern has the human population exhibited the last 200 years?
Exponential Growth

What was Thomas Malthus’s prediction?
In 1789, Thomas Malthus published a book called "On Population" in which he made the prediction that the population would outrun food supply, leading to famine, war

What happens to energy as it moves through an ecosystem?
Energy is transferred from organism to organism. Energy is never created, or destroyed. 90% of energy gets lost as heat through each level of the food chain.

Why is there less energy available as you move up the trophic levels?
Because when an organism is consumed only 10% is passed to the other organism. The other 90% of the energy is turned to heat, not usable to any living organism.

Explain why the number of organisms decreases as trophic levels increase.**
There is not enough energy to support organisms at the top of the food chain.