add information to this page until this evening. NO ONE should edit this page in class.

1) Your class is going to create a cell.

2) Each of you have been assigned a particular part of a eukaryotic cell.

3) Research and collect information regarding the following:
-what your part looks like
-what it does for the cell
-the size of your part
-pictures and links to websites about your cell part

4) DO NOT add your information to this page until this evening. NO ONE should edit this page in class.

Homework: Insert the information you collected regarding your organelle onto this webpage. I will be checking your work tonight and grading you on the quality of the information you have provided your classmates.

This is also a class competition! May the best cell win!

Matt - Cilia
Charlotte - Flagellum
Emily C - Plasma membrane
Michael - Cytoskeleton
Kat - Endoplasmic reticulum
Richie - Nucleus
Ben - DNA
Sebastiana - Nucleolus
Jennifer - Vacuole
Blake - Lysosome
Rachel P - Ribosomes
Anna - Mitochondria
Emily R - Golgi apparatus
Jordan - Vesicles
Danielle - Nuclear envelope
Maryclaire - Chloroplast
Grant T & Caroline - if someone above is not here, please take their role. Otherwise, help Emily with the plasma membrane and Anna with the mitochondria.

Chloroplasts are organelles found in certain cells where the process photosynthesis takes place. Because
photosynthesis takes place inside the chloroplasts, they are responsible for most of the world’s primary
productivity. This makes them essential in both animals & plants alike. Chloroplasts are surrounded by a
double membrane. They are found in land plants, algae, and some protists. A typical cell could have as
many as 50 chloroplasts. They are very small, only 2 mirometers by 5 micrometers.They also have disk-
like bodies that hold them in green pigment called chlorophyll and other enzymes that contribute to the
overall production of photosynthesis. -Maryclaire

The Flagellum literally means “whipped” and is the long tail like figure at the end of a cell and is made of protein and
form into long individual helical threads which in turn wrap around another to form a braid which in turn form into a filament. The Flagellum is necessary for the cell allowing the cell to move around such as sperm. If a cell like epithelial cells, which is attached to cell tissue the flagellum allows liquid to pass throughout and around the cell. It is very important for a cell to move around and allows the cells to have a great advantage. The number and length of flagellums in a cell is particular to the cell some may have one and others have many. The ability to move allows the cell to move to find food instead of waiting on food to come to it which can cause the cell to die if it is forced to wait to long.
Good Sites:
Good Pictures:

[[image:file:C:%5CDOCUME%7E1%5CCHARLO%7E1%5CLOCALS%7E1%5CTemp%5Cmsohtml1%5C01%5Cclip_image002.jpg width="398" height="292"]][[image:file:C:%5CDOCUME%7E1%5CCHARLO%7E1%5CLOCALS%7E1%5CTemp%5Cmsohtml1%5C01%5Cclip_image002.jpg width="1" height="19"]]
Golgi apparatus:
Structure: It is made up of cisternae, which are cup-shaped sacs. The cisternae have membranes, making them selectively permeable. The number of cisternae in a golgi apparatus varies from about 6 to hundreds of cisternae. (Golgi apparatuses in plants generally have a lot more cisternae than those of animals.) Because there are so many different structures, the Golgi apparatus has many functions. The Golgi apparatus has two ends: the cis face and the trans face. The cis face is where substances leaving the endoplasmic reticulum enter into the Golgi apparatus. The trans face is where the substances leave the Golgi apparatus. Below is a model of the Golgi apparatus:

Location in the cell: The cis face is located next to the endoplasmic reticulum. The trans face is next to the plasma membrane. Also, the Golgi apparatus is generally near the nucleus.
Main function: The Golgi apparatus helps organize substances in the cell. It adds “specialized molecular identification labels or tags, such as phosphate groups” to the molecules that pass through it. These labels make the substance recognizable so that it will be put in its proper location.
Other functions: Also, it produces polysaccharides such as cellulose. It modifies molecules such as proteins, carbohydrates, and phospholipids.
Size: The golgi apparatus is relatively large compared to other organelles.
Golgi Apparatus
Golgi Apparatus

The cytoskeleton- is contained in the cytoplasm it gives shape to the cell and acts as a form of transportation to move around organelles. The cytoplasm is a gelatinous material that fills up the cell where all organelles are suspended

It is made of three major fibrous parts:

~ microfilaments- made mostly out of actin a protein they are what drive basic cell movements, they also help pinch off the two cells in cell division.
Here is a great website on microfilaments. Size- 5-9 nanometers in diameter

~ microtubules- made mostly of the protein tubulin they are the main structure for the cell and help move around the organelles. They also are found in the cilia and flagella. Size- 25 nanometers in diameter

~ Intermediate filaments- help keep cell shape and keep its rigidness. They anchor important organelles in place like the nucleus. They also help form the nuclear lamina which maintains the nucleus’ shape. Intermediate filaments are made of tubulin and actin but are not found in all species. Size- 8-12 nanometers in diameter.

Vesicle: A vesicle is a relatively small intracellular, membrane-enclosed sac that stores or transports substances. A vesicle is a small fluid-filled blister. Vesicles store transport, or digest cellular products and waste. Vesicles can fuse with the plasma membrane, releasing their contents outside the cell. Vesicles are a basic tool of the cell for organizing metabolism, transport, enzyme storage, as well as being chemical reaction chambers. A vesicle is small -- it may be as tiny as the top of a pin or up to 5 or 10 millimeters wide.
(here is the site for the picture)

Sources: --Jordan--

Kat - Endoplasmic reticulum
- The endoplasmic reticulum is an extensive network of membranes composed of both regions with ribosomes and regions without ribosomes.
There are two types of ER: smooth and rough.
Smooth ER is the site of synthesis and digestion of fatty acids and phospholipids. In the liver it is used to modify dangerous chemicals such as pesticides ready for excretion.
Rough ER is the site of manufacture of secretory proteins as well as proteins destined to be inserted in the cell membrane. It is rough because of the vast numbers of ribosomes which stud its surface. As these ribosomes build an amino acid chain, it is injected through the ER into the vesicle, as shown in this diagram. Once the amino acid chain enters the vesicle it is folded, often with the help of other enzymes.
Structure - sheets of unit membrane with **ribosomes** on the
- forms a tubular network throughout the cell

Function - transports chemicals between cells and within cells
- provides a large surface area for the organization
of chemical reactions and synthesis

Pictures: external image endoplasmic_reticulums.gif

Websites: , , ,

What does it look like?
Mitochondria are rod-shaped, but can sometimes be round. It is bounded by two membranes-an outer and an inner. Each layer is a phospholipids bilayer with proteins in it. The outer membrane is smooth, while the inner membrane has many folds. The folds help with cell respiration, giving it more surface area to work with. Besides the membranes there are two other main parts-the intermembrane space and the mitochondrial matrix. The space is between the two membranes and the matrix is in the center of the inner membrane.
What does it do?
The mitochondria have 3 main functions. They are to convert energy into a form the cell can use, take care of programmed cell death, and do cell respiration. The most common form that the mitochondria convert energy to is adenosine triphosphate. This is needed for the cell to survive. Programmed cell death occurs when a cell needs to get rid of itself. It happens when the mitochondria takes in more oxygen than it needs. Due to this the cells don’t allow proper energy conversions, which kill the cell. The mitochondria are also in charge of cell respiration. By doing this the mitochondria generate fuel for the cell. In addition to the three main functions, the mitochondria can have cell specific functions. It can range from one function to many functions.
What is its size?
The mitochondria are about the size of bacteria. It is between 1 and 10 micrometers in length.
Other Info…
  • There can be anywhere from one to thousands of them in a cell
  • They sometimes group together in the cell for travel
  • They are normally always in motion
  • They have their own DNA and ribosomes
  • It can quickly divide to make more mitochondria

external image mitochondria.jpg

Cells use mitochondria aas thier main source of power. Mitochondria have two membranes and are organelles. The outer membrane is what limits the mitochondria.
external image p0014498-mitochondria.gif


The cell nucleus is a remarkable organelle because it forms the package for our genes and their controlling factors. It functions to: store genes on chromosomes allows cell division produces messages and ect here is the website with additional information: nucleus is the brain of eukaryotic cells. So its basically the most important part of the cell. Usually the nucleus is round and is the largest organelle in the cell. The nucleus is surrounded by the cytoplasm inside a cell.
The nucleus houses the DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) which stores genetic information for a cell.Structurally, the nucleus is composed of three main parts, the nucleolus, the nuclear envelope, and the chromatin
Here is the website for any additional information and interesting pictures nucleus is the most obvious organelle in any eukaryotic cell. It is a membrane-bound organelle and is surrounded by a double membrane.
The prominent structure in the nucleus is the nucleolus. The nucleolus produces ribosomes,
which move out of the nucleus to positions on the rough endoplasmic reticulum where they
are critical in protein synthesis.
here is the source for this wonderful info:
Within the nucleus are found chromatin and a structure called the nucleolus.
Chromatin is DNA in its active form. It consists of DNA looped around histone proteins.
The nucleus regulates all cell activity. It does this by controlling the enzymes( speed up the process of something) present.
This is a really cool website I found personally you will like it and is called the Virtual Cell and it
a couple of animations on the nucleus.
Here are some pics of a Nucleus
external image eukcell.jpg
Here is and example of an Eukaryotic Plant Cell as you can see the Nucleus is in the middle
here is the picture source

external image nucleus.jpeg
Here is nucleus and the outer layers
the picture source
--sebastiana laremont-----------------------------------------

Plasma Membrane
Primary Function: Present in all cells and encloses their contents and serves as a semi-porous barrier to the outside environment.
Other Functions: The membrane is basically a “boundary”. It keeps some substances from entering, but also holds the cell constituents together. The plasma membrane allows essential elements and nutrients to enter the cell and unnecessary waste materials to leave the cell. Thus, it is permeable to specific molecules. Just like we have studied, small molecules are able to pass freely through the membrane; however larger molecules are carefully regulated when passing through.
Structure: The plasma membrane consists of a bilayar of lipids. These are actually phospholipids and arrange themselves in a wall with the water fearing tails on the inside. This is actually outside the cell. Inside the phospholipid bilayer, diverse proteins are embedded, and others are at the surface of the bilayar. Some that are on the external side of the membrane have carbohydrates attached to their surfaces and are referred to as glycoproteins.
Sources/cool websites about plasma membranes/good pictures of plasma membranes:
Grant T

Nuclear Envelope

It looks like this
The Nuclear Envelope
The Nuclear Envelope

The nuclear envelope has two membranes which are connected at the sites of the nuclear pores. These pores decide which molecules can pass between the nucleus and cytoplasm. It surrounds the nucleus in a eukaryotic cell for most of the cells lifecycle.

For more information, check out these websites

Structure- It is usually is composed of two sub units, one large and one small. These two units are not attached until the ribosome attaches to RNA to produce protein. The two units are made up of fifty proteins and several RNA strands.
Its Function in the Cell- a Ribosome is where protein synthesis takes place. This is when RNA is turned into protein. Three RNA strands are synthesized in the nucleolus, which can be found in the nucleus. The fourth strand is synthesized on the outside of the nucleus and then carried into the nucleus. Then the strands combine to form the two subunits and come together when the ribosome makes proteins.
Size- It is much smaller than other organelles. They are so small that some cells can hold a few million ribosomes. There are so many because of their importance to the cell.
Location- Found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells where they stay or travel to the endoplasmic reticulum. They can also be found in mitochondria and chloroplast.
Other- -Ribosomes do not have a membrane.

ribo.gif ribosome2.jpg

Rachel P


"A **vacuole** is a membrane-bound sac that plays roles in intracellular digestion and the release of cellular waste products . In animal cells, vacuoles are generally small and tend to be large in plant cells and play a role in turgor pressure. When a plant is well-watered, water collects in cell vacuoles producing rigidity in the plant. Without sufficient water, pressure in the vacuole is reduced and the plant wilts."
One type of vacuole, the contradictile vacuole, "is an organelle that pumps excess water out of many freshwater protist cells, such as amoebae. The force that operates the contractile vacuole is strongly suspected of being generated by myosin Ic, a molecular motor that works in conjunction with actin" "Another function or type of vacuole is the food vacuole. These vacuoles are formed forphagocytosis, or the engulfing of nutrients into the cell. The food vacuole is the whole in which the nutrients are pulled in. This allows the cell to gain and utilize large amounts of nutrients at one time, instead of little by little."
Major Plant Vacuole Role > The vacuole holds large amounts of water or food. > They act like storage bins by storing waste products so the the rest of the cell is protected from contamination. Eventually, those waste products would be sent out of the cell.
Vacuole Structure "There is a membrane that surrounds a mass of fluid. In that fluid are nutrients or waste products. Plants may also use vacuoles to store water. Those tiny water bags help to support the plant. They are closely related to objects called vesicles that are found throughout the cell. "
Photo source external image anatomy.GIF
Major Animal Cell Vacuole Roles > helps Intrcellular digestion
  • The release of waste products Animal cell Vacuole Structure > A small membrane-bound, fluid-filled sac
Photosourceexternal image animal_cell.gif

*= My favorite sites
Jennifer * * <-- Virtual cell!
** ~cweaver/cells/c/vacuole/** *