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Miss Baker's Biology Class Wiki
Pages and Files
9th Honors Biology
Science Online '09
4th Period's Cell
add information to this page until this evening.
NO ONE should edit this page in class.
1) Your class is going to create a cell.
2) Each of you have been assigned a particular part of a
3) Research and collect information regarding the following:
-what your part looks like
-what it does for the cell
-the size of your part
-pictures and links to websites about your cell part
add your information to this page until this evening.
NO ONE should edit this page in class.
Homework: Insert the information you collected regarding your organelle onto this webpage. I will be checking your work tonight and grading you on the quality of the information you have provided your classmates.
This is also a class competition! May the best cell win!
Sarah - Cilia
Evelyn - Flagellum
Brantley - Plasma membrane
Stephen - Endoplasmic reticulum
Jon - Nucleus
Morgan - DNA
Roger - chloroplast
Billy - Vacuole
Max - Lysosome
Katie - Ribosomes
Sydni - Mitochondria
Lacey - Golgi apparatus
Monica - Vesicles
The vacuole is used only in plant cells. It is responsible for maintaining the shape and structure of the cell. Plant cells don't increase in size by expanding the cytoplasm; rather they increase the size of their vacuoles. The vacuole is a large vesicle which is also used to store nutrients, metabolites, and waste products. The pressure applied by the vacuole, called turgor, is necessary to maintain the size of the cell. The tonoplast in the picture of the plant cell central vacuole is a membrane separating a vacuole from the surrounding cytoplasm in a plant cell. Here is a website where there are some pictures of the vacuole:
The Golgi Apparatus looks like a bunch of plates stacked on top of eachother. It is actually some vesicles arranged in a stck. Here is a link that provides some pictures so you are able to see for yourself.
The Golgi Apparatus modifies, stores, and secretes chemicals. It also processes proteins produced on the ribosomes. It acts as a messenger, because it directs molecules to other parts of the cell.Due to it's realitivly large size, the Golgi Apparatus was one of the first organelles ever observed. It was observed in 1897, by Camillo Gologi, an Italian physician. Here are some more sites on the Golgi Apparatus:
Here is also a cool animation:
Here is also a site with more information, an animation, and a quiz:
A eukaryotic flagellum is made of of a bundle of 9 fused pairs of microtubles, or doublets. These surround two single microtubles in the center, giving the flagellum it's 9 by 2 structure, called the axoneme. At the base of the flagellum is a microtubule organizing center that is called the kinetosome, and it is 500 nanometers long. The flagellum is encased within the cell membrane so it can access the cell's cytoplasm. Each of the outer nine doublets has an inner and outer dynein arm, which are responsible for causing the flagellum to bend back and forth. The axoneme also has polypeptide complexes extending from the outer doublets to the inner pair to make radial spokes. The eukaryotic flagellum is a thin, whiplike organelle that extends from the cell, and wiggles back and forth, almost like a tail.
The main function of the flagellum specializes in locomotion. The flagellum extends from the cell, and whips back and forth to propel the cell through a liquid medium. Recent research also shows that the flagellum may be vital for sensation and signal transduction. Intraflagellar transport (the process by which certain proteins are moved up and down the flagellum) is essential for the proper functioning of the flagellum.
The flagellum is thin and microscopic, and the kinetosome is 500 nanometers long.
Here is a link to an awesome website you can go to about the flagellum
here is a link to a website with a great 3-D picture
DNA, short for deoxyribonucleic, contains a long polymer of nucleotides and a backbone made of sugars and phosphate groups joined by
bonds (and attached to these sugars are four types of molecules called bases). These sugars create a backbone that when in the correct order it can store information, which is pretty much genetic codes which are told by amino acids. And also DNA also contains chromosomes. Now DNA is stored in cells in the human body. DNA is a nucleic acid that give the function to all living things including genes and information.
Here is a picture of a cell:
The Cell Nucleus is composed of three main parts:
1. The Nucleolus
2. The Nuclear Envelope
3. The Chromatin.
The main function of a cell nucleus is to be the control center of the cell. The nucleus has a membrane called a nuclear envelope. The nucleus is like a vault. It contains the cell’s DNA. The nucleus is a major structure in the center of the cell. Here are some links to more information about the cell nucleus:
Ribosomes are somewhat like a sphere. They are made up of two sunbits, and look like
or, (showing the inside) like
The ribosomes turn amino acids into polypeptides. Their job is to put together proteins for the cell.
“In eukaryotes, the rRNA in ribosomes is organized into four strands…Eukaryote ribosomes are produced and assembled in the nucleolus…Ribosomal proteins enter the nucleolus and combine with the four rRNA strands to create the two ribosomal subunits (one small and one large) that will make up the completed ribosome (see Figure 1). The ribosome units leave the nucleus through the nuclear pores and unite once in the cytoplasm for the purpose of protein synthesis. When protein production is not being carried out, the two subunits of a ribosome are separated…Once the protein backbone amino acids are polymerized, the ribosome releases the protein and it is transported to the cytoplasm…There, the proteins are completed and released inside or outside the cell. Ribosomes are very efficient organelles. A single ribosome in a eukaryotic cell can add 2 amino acids to a protein chain every second.” (
They are about 20 nanometers in diameter, and found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.
Here are some good websites:
There is also
Why don’t you look at
Perhaps you would prefer
The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of tubules, vesicles and sacs that are interconnected. They may serve specialized functions in the cell including protein synthesis, sequestration of calcium, production of steroids, storage and production of glycogen, and insertion of membrane proteins.
There are two types of endoplasmic reticulums:
1: Smooth endoplasmic reticulum. This allows increased surface area for the action or storage of key enzymes and the products of these enzymes.
2: Rough endoplasmic reticulum. This is studded with ribosomes which gives it its rough look. Those attached ribosomes make proteins that will be used inside the cell and proteins made for export out of the cell.
The endoplasmic reticulum is about 100 to 150 nonometers in depth.
Lysosomes are organelles that contain digestive enzymes. They digest excess organelles, viruses or bacteria, and food particles. Lysosomes fuse with vacuoles and dispense their enzymes into the vacuoles, digesting their contents.The membrane surrounding a lysosome prevents the digestive enzymes inside from destroying the cell.
Mitochondria provide energy to the cells, so they work as the cells’ power sources. They are organelles that act like a digestive system that takes in nutrients, breaks them down, and creates energy for the cell. They have two membranes. Usually they are tubular-shaped, but they can be round. They are very small, so you can find cells with several thousand mitochondria. The number of the mitochondria depends on what the cell needs to do, or as Miss. Baker would say “the structure determines the function”. Mitochondria have two membranes. The outer membrane covers the organelle and what it contains. The inner membrane folds over many times to increase its surface area. Many of the chemical reactions happen in the inner membrane of the mitochondria. The increased surface area allows the small organelle to do as much work as possible.
The plasma membrane serves as an interference between the machinery in the interior of the cell and the extracellular fluid that bathes the cell. It is permeable to smaller substances, and it is impermeable to larger substances. It is more permeable to negative ions that positive ions. The plasme membrane has a layer of phospholipids. In this layer, ther are proteins. Some proteins just stick to the surfaces of this layer, while others have carbohydrates attached to their outer surfaces (refered to as glycoproteins). These proteins play a role in the selective transport of molecules across the phospholipid layer. The size of the plasma membrade varies depending on the size of the cell.
A vesicle is an intracellular (
:existing, occurring, or functioning within a cell) sac that stores or it can transport substances. They may store, transport, or digest cellular products and wastes. Vesicles can also fuse with the plasma membrane (a semipermeable limiting layer of cell protoplasm consisting of a fluid phospholipid bilayer with intercalated proteins
releasing their contents outside of the cell. Vesicles organize metabolism, transport enzymes and storage. Most Vesicles are made up of the Golgi apparatus (a cytoplasmic organelle that consists of a stack of smooth membranous saccules and associated vesicles and that is active in the modification and transport of proteins
)//. Vesicles are very small; usually not visible to the naked eye.
You can go
to see an image of a Vesicle.
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